Greer: Devoted to Allergy Immunotherapy

Library

Our various publications organized by topic and date are available for download in this section.

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Allergenic Species | Clinical Resources | Environmental | Extract Compatibilities
Major Allergens | Manufacturing and Testing | Miscellaneous | Top

 

Allergenic Species

Botanical Information Sheets (ACAAI 2005 Poster)
Botanical information sheets were developed using photos and descriptions to serve as educational tools for allergy practitioners and their patients.

Common Allergenic Pollens, Fungi, Animals and Arthropods (CRAI 2001 Publication)
This is a survey of the different kinds of organisms that are responsible for causing allergy.

Statewide Pollen Charts (AAAAI 2007 Poster)
Charts indicating the presence or absence of allergenic plants have been developed to provide a convenient guide to the species relevant to selected localities within a given state or area.


Allergenic Species | Clinical Resources | Environmental | Extract Compatibilities
Major Allergens | Manufacturing and Testing | Miscellaneous | Top

 

Clinical Resources

The Allergen-Glycerin Balance:  Tools for Achieving Efficacious and Safe Subcutaneous Immunotherapy Injections (Presented at AAO-HNS, 2012)
The balance of allergen loads and glycerin content in subcutaneous immunotherapy vaccines prepared in ENT allergy clinics can facilitate efficacious and safe treatments for patients presenting with a wide range of allergen sensitivities.  This poster was presented at the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery annual meeting in Washington DC, September, 2012.

How's My Dosing? A one-step, math-free guide for comparing your clinic's maintenance immunotherapy doses to current practice parameter recommendations (Annals AAI 2012 Publication)
Dosing guides that provide clinicians with a convenient method for determining the numbers and strengths of extracts that can be combined into treatment vials, and can facilitate optimization of maintenance immunotherapy mixtures.

How’s My Dosing 2.0: Comparison of 2003-2011 Immunotherapy Practice Parameter Maintenance Dose Recommendations
Updated math-free formulation tables based upon 2003-2011 comparison of immunotherapy practice parameter maintenance dose recommendations.

Allergen Immunotherapy 2001 (Cur AA Rep 2001 Publication)
This review addresses the causes of allergy along with the factors to be addressed when considering or initiating immunotherapy, along with a brief survey of new approaches.

Allergen Stability, Compatibility and Cross-Reactivity (ACAAI 2001 Poster)
The usefulness of allergenic extracts in an allergy clinic can be affected by several important properties, and these are addressed in this study.

Lack of Demonstrable Immunochemical Cross-Reactivities Between Alternaria and Cladosporium Extracts (ACAAI 2009 Oral)
Although the major allergens of these genera exhibit similar biochemical properties, it was found that patients from various regions of the US did not recognize these two genera as cross-reactive when tested by both in vivo and in vitro methods.


Allergenic Species | Clinical Resources | Environmental | Extract Compatibilities
Major Allergens | Manufacturing and Testing | Miscellaneous | Top

 

Environmental

Airborne Fungal Spores in Houses During Rainy Season in Florida (J Invest Allergol Clin Imm 2008 Publication)
The types and levels of airborne fungal spores found in houses in Florida without obvious moisture problems were determined.

Guide for interpreting reports from inspection/investigations of indoor mold (JACI 2008 Publication)
Mold sampling data needs to be interpreted properly to be of use in determination of the scope of mold in a building as well as the relevance for mold allergies.

Short-Term Variation of the Types and Levels of Outdoor Airborne Fungal Spores Collected at Ground Level (AAAAI 2008 Poster)
The types of fungal spores present outside a building may influence the spores sampled inside, so sampling of the former will aid in interpretation of the latter.


Allergenic Species | Clinical Resources | Environmental | Extract Compatibilities
Major Allergens | Manufacturing and Testing | Miscellaneous | Top

 

Extract Compatibilities

Updated Mixing Recommendations for Subcutaneous Allergen Extract Immunotherapy: Extract Compatibilities after Storage for 1-3 and 6-12 months
Charts provided in this presentation can assist clinicians with formulation of immunotherapy mixtures for patients presenting with a diverse range of environmental exposures and allergen sensitivities.

Factorial Analysis of Allergenic Extract Compatibilities using a Fractional 6-Factor, 2-Level Experimental Design Matrix
Factorial design matrices are convenient tools for assessing allergen compatibilities in a wide variety of complex extract mixtures.

Allergen Stabilities and Compatibilities in Mixtures of High-protease Fungal and Insect Extracts (Annals AAI 2012 Publication)
Current practice parameters state that protease-rich fungal and insect extracts can be combined safely in immunotherapy vaccines. The compatibilities of fungal and insect allergens in these mixtures may be compromised by proteases from other fungal and insect products. For this reason, separation of fungal and insect extracts into different treatment vials may be necessary to produce stable mixtures for subcutaneous immunotherapy.

Allergen Compatibilities in Extract Mixtures (Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America 2011 Publication)
This publication summarizes the peer-reviewed literature examining the compatibility and stability of allergenic extracts when mixed together for subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy.

Allergen Immunotherapy: What Can and Cannot Be Mixed? (JACI 2008 Publication)
This review discusses the issues to be considered when multiple allergenic extracts are combined, including the effects on the patient due to cross-reactivity and the effects on the included extracts due to incompatibility due to proteases.

Compatibility of Imported Fire Ant Whole Body Extract With Cat, Ragweed, DP, and Timothy Grass Allergens (Annals AAI 2009 Publication)
This study describes the methodology used to determine the stability of various standardized extracts when combined with fire ant whole body extracts. Results suggest that the fire ant itself along with the standardized extracts, except for Timothy grass, do not lose potency.

Mixing Compatibility of Phenolated, Glycerinated Allergenic Extracts Stored at Refrigeration or Ambient Temperatures
This study investigated the stabilities of allergens in common phenolated extract mixtures containing 50% glycerin during typical storage or daily-use conditions.

Stability and Mixing Compatibility of Dog Epithelia and Dog Dander Allergens (Annals AAI 2009 Publication)
Although dog allergens show favorable temperature stabilities, combinations with fungal or insect extracts may compromise the potency of dog allergens.

Stability of Various Extracts After Mixing With Cockroach Extracts (ACAAI 2005 Poster)
The stabilities of cat, ragweed, dust mite, and mold extracts after mixing with cockroach extracts were examined by immunoblotting, RID and ELISA inhibition assays.

Stability of Non-Standardized Allergens After Mixing with Fungal or Insect Extracts (ACAAI 2008 Poster)
This study used laboratory assays to determine whether the stability of tree and weed pollen and dog allergens is affected by proteases contained in fungal and insect extracts after the latter groups have been mixed with the former.

Stability of Standardized Grass, etc. After Mixing with Mold or Cockroach Extracts (Annals AAI 2007 Publication)
The effects of mold and cockroach extracts when combined with other allergenic extracts are presented in this study, along with clinical implications.

Temperature Stability and Mixing Compatibility of Phenolated, Glycerinated Short Ragweed Extracts (ACAAI 2009 Oral)
The presence of phenol in short ragweed extracts resulted at most in a minimal reduction of allergenic potency and only at elevated temperatures, and such extracts were shown to be compatible with most other allergenic extracts. Fungal extracts caused the greatest reduction in Amb a 1 activity when combined with short ragweed extracts.


Allergenic Species | Clinical Resources | Environmental | Extract Compatibilities
Major Allergens | Manufacturing and Testing | Miscellaneous | Top

 

Major Allergens

Alt a 1 Determinations; Comparing Five Assay Formats Produce Different Results (AAAAI 1997 Poster)
The development of accurate and reproducible methods to quantitate the content of Alt a 1, the major allergen of Alternaria, is complicated by several factors.

Diversity of Protein Compositions and Immunochemical Reactivities in Alternaria Extracts (ACAAI 2006 Poster)
The diversity of protein compositions and immunochemical reactivities of Alternaria extracts produced from a variety of sources and cultures were examined using several laboratory techniques.

Major Allergen Analyses: Comparability and Clinical Relevance of Polyclonal vs Monoclonal Antibodies to Alternaria Allergen Alt a 1 (ACAAI 2007 Poster)
This study demonstrated that polyclonal rabbit anti-Alt a 1 antibodies resulted in greater inhibition of human IgE binding than monoclonal mouse anti-Alt a 1 antibodies, and suggests that use of polyclonal antibodies can provide a more complete recognition of important proteins in Alt a 1.

Major Allergen Levels vs Standardized Extract Potencies (ACAAI 2002 Poster)
The standardization of allergenic extracts based on immunochemical properties of specific protein constituents presents challenges for manufacturers and regulatory agencies due to several reasons.

Major Allergen Measurements: Sources of Variability, Validation, Quality Assurance, and Utility for Laboratories, Manufacturers and Clinics (ACAAI 2000 Oral)
There are several issues that have an impact on the measurement of major allergens in extracts, and these are important for manufacturers, testing laboratories, and clinics.

Major Allergen Measurements: Sources of Variability, Validation, Quality Assurance, and Utility for Laboratories, Manufacturers and Clinics (Allergy & Asthma Proc 2002 Publication)
This study describes the assays used for measuring major allergens and the challenges involved, such as variations among laboratory equipment, supplies, and technicians, that can affect the consistency and reliability of assays.

Sensitization to Alternaria Allergens: IgE Specificities and Relative Skin Reactivities from Multiple US Locations (ACAAI 2007 Poster)
This is a study of the geographic variations in both serum and skin reactivities to Alternaria extracts and the variations in the allergenic protein structures that are responsible for such variation.


Allergenic Species | Clinical Resources | Environmental | Extract Compatibilities
Major Allergens | Manufacturing and Testing | Miscellaneous | Top

 

Manufacturing and Testing

Environmental Assay to Measure Mouse Urine Antigens (AAAAI 2013 Poster)
This study describes the optimization of a highly specific ELISA to measure domestic mouse urine antigens using rabbit polyclonal antibodies.  This assay is useful for environmental monitoring and investigations of the cross-reactivity among allergens derived from different mammals.  The poster was presented at the 2013 AAAAI meeting in San Antonio, TX, February 2013.

Thermostability of Fungi, Mite, and Dander Raw Materials under Temperature Stress Conditions
This study investigated the thermostability of various raw materials stored under two temperature ranges.  This poster was presented at the 2012 European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI).

Testing of Raw Materials Used for the Production of Allergenic Extracts
The purpose of this study was to determine types and levels of environmental contaminants found in pollen and fungal raw materials used for the manufacture of allergenic extracts.  Levels of these types of constituents in GREER raw materials was found to be negligible.

Pollen Viability Under a Stress Condition
This study was performed to determine the efficacy of a stain to evaluate the viability of different pollen species under an artificial stress condition.

Determination of Allergenic Content in Dog Dander
Dander obtained from mixed breed dogs may contain greater allergen levels than that derived from breed-specific dogs.  This is most likely due to environmental and genetic factors and should be considered in the manufacture of dog allergenic extracts.

Consistency of Major Allergen Concentration and Multi-Allergen IgE-Binding Potency Across Production Lots of Protease-Rich Fungal and Insect Extracts
This study examines the consistency of major and minor allergens across multiple lots of non-standardized allergenic extracts (Alternaria and German Cockroach) known to contain high levels of active proteolytic enzymes.  Consistent representation of allergenic activity in these products were demonstrated.

Allergen Source Materials and Quality Control of Allergenic Extracts (METHODS 1997 Publication)
This paper provides some background information on the history of allergen immunotherapy, nomenclature of major allergens and their use in standardization, and a discussion of the causes in variations among extracts from a given allergenic species.

Allergenic Source Materials—Considerations and challenges for biopharmaceutical product or assay development (Pharm. Processing 2007 Publication)
Whether source materials are produced by a manufacturing facility, or collected or grown by an external supplier, several requirements must be met to assure their identity, quality and suitability for the intended allergenic extracts. The factors and processes involved in assuring these requirements are met are discussed.

Endotoxin Testing of Allergen Extracts (AAAAI 2009 Poster)
The LAL chromogenic kinetic assay was optimized for measuring endotoxin concentrations in allergenic extracts, and some preliminary data on endotoxin concentrations for various Greer extracts is provided.

Evaluation of Allergen Vaccine Potency (Cur AA Rep 2006 Publication)
Reliable and clinically-relevant potency assays are essential to assuring the safety and effectiveness of allergenic extracts used in immunotherapy. This publication provides a survey of the various methods, both in vitro and in vivo, used to assure potency of extracts.

Laboratory Methods for Allergenic Extract Analysis and Quality Control (CRAI 2001 Publication)
This paper describes and summarizes the laboratory assays used to assure quality of allergenic extracts along with the specific issues that must be addressed in the development and interpretation of these assays.

Manufacturing and Standardizing Fungal Allergen Products (JACI 2004 Publication)
The processes and associated challenges in culturing fungal raw material and producing extracts are discussed, along with a survey of species used, laboratory methods for assessing extracts, and the implications for standardization.

Mold Extract Comparability, Stability and Compatibility (ACAAI 2004 Poster)
Fungal species exhibit considerable intraspecific diversity and contain proteases that may affect their stability and their compatibility with other allergens with which they are mixed.


Allergenic Species | Clinical Resources | Environmental | Extract Compatibilities
Major Allergens | Manufacturing and Testing | Miscellaneous | Top

 

Miscellaneous

Aluminum Sulfate Reduces Skin Test Response to Common Allergens in Sensitized Patients (Clin & Mol Aller 2006 Publication)
Aluminum sulfate has been shown to reduce the skin test response to common allergens without affecting the response to histamine. It is suggested that aluminum sulfate may be possible to reduce the allergenicity of environmental allergens when they cannot be removed.

Deleterious Effects of Electron Beam Radiation on Allergen Extracts (JACI 2002 Publication)
Ionizing radiation used to kill anthrax bacteria used as agents of bioterrorism has been shown to have adverse affects on the proteins in allergenic extracts, potentially rendering them ineffective for testing or immunotherapy. This is an important consideration for such extracts mailed to government agencies for medical use.

Development and Preclinical Evaluation of an Alphavirus Replicon Particle Vaccine for Cytomegalovirus (Vaccine 2007 Publication)
Virus-like replicon particles (VRP) for human cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B or a pp65/IE1 fusion protein were produced, resulting in pilot lots and clinical lots of each component. ELISA and CMV neutralization assays showed the vaccine induces high-titered antibody responses in mice and rabbits, and robust T-cell responses in mice were demonstrated. No toxic effects were identified in a study using rabbits, and clinical testing of this replicon vaccine in humans is supported by these studies.

Effects of Summer Mailing on In Vivo and In Vitro Relative Potencies of Standardized Timothy Grass Extract (Ann AAI 2010 Publication)
This study of a “real life” movement of extracts under the warmest weather conditions likely to be encountered showed that Timothy grass extracts showed only a statistically insignificant loss of potency when tested by ELISA and by comparing IDEAL values.

IgE-Sensitization to Cellular and Culture Filtrates of Fungal Extracts in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis (Ann AAI 1998 Publication)
This study addressed the relation between atopic dermatitis and exposure to fungi, and culture filtrates and cellular extracts were compared.

Mite and Cockroach Proteases Activate p44/p42 MAP Kinases in Human Lung Epithelial Cells (Clin & Mol All 2003 Publication)
The mechanisms by which mite and cockroach (both American and German) allergens activate lung epithelial cells were studied.

Allergenic Species | Clinical Resources | Environmental | Extract Compatibilities | Major Allergens | Manufacturing and Testing | Miscellaneous | Top

 

 

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